It is important to adjust the carbohydrate, protein and oil fractions of energy as well as the nutritional diversity in a healthy diet. These percentages are predetermined and the ratios differ by age group. A healthy individual should receive 10-15% of energy from proteins, 55-60% from carbohydrates, and up to 30% from oils.
Nutrients: Nearly 70 nutrient items in the body that are needed and in the composition of the nutrients can be grouped into 5 groups according to their chemical structure and their activity in body adaptation. These; proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and water. the individual is able to provide all the nutritional items that are needed according to his / her age, gender and physiological condition in sufficient quantities.
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are things that supply energy.
Carbohydrates: The total amount of carbohydrates in the adult human body is below 1%. The main task of carbohydrates is to provide energy. Most of the daily energy used in the body is provided by carbohydrates. In the human body, carbohydrates are stored in very small amounts as glycogen and, if necessary, released into the blood as glucose. Glycogen storage is mostly found in the liver and muscles, and there are also some glycogen in other organs. The glycogen, which is in the form of a tank, is required to maintain a certain level of blood glucose, the uninterrupted source of energy for body tissues.
Proteins: Approximately 16% of the adult human body is composed of proteins. They are also essential for the growth, development, renewal of worn-out cells since they are the essential element of cells besides their energy supply. Proteins also constitute the structure of enzymes and some hormones involved in the use of nutrients in the body. Some of the minerals are the building blocks of the body. Some of them, along with vitamins, act as regulators in the chemical changes in the destruction and construction of food items.
Oils: 18% of the adult human body is fat. In general, women have more fat in their bodies than men. Body fat is the main energy source of a person. When the energy is not enough, the body stores the fat and the fat rate increases. When energy expenditure is less than energy intake, the body stores the fat and increases the fat ratio. When the energy expenditure is higher than the energy intake, the body is burned and the fat rate is reduced. Oils are the most energy-giving nutrient. Some of the vitamins can be taken with body fat. Fats give a sense of saturation because they slowly leave the pussy Subcutaneous fat tissue prevents rapid loss of body heat. Oils are necessary for the production of some hormones and hormone-like items that take part in the regular functioning of the body.
Carbohydrates are organic compounds formed from Carbon (C), Hydrogen and Oxygen (0) atoms. They are very common in the living world. Today, in many nutrition models, it is the nutrient item that most of people’s solar energy receives. In poor tropical countries like Central Africa, daily energy is supplied from 90% CHOs, whereas in developed countries this rate is reduced to 40%. 55-60% of the adequate and balanced nutrition program is provided from CHO. The number of these three elements (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen) is CHO in various structures and names according to the combination order and human utilization status.
The functions of carbohydrates in their body: They provide a significant portion of the energy that the body spends. All tissues use carbohydrates for their energy needs. Brain tissue uses only carbohydrates for energy. For heavy physical movements, carbohydrates are the most convenient source of energy. Ties Antikatojeni. If the carbohydrates are taken less than necessary, more ketones and acids will form in the body than normal. These molecules increase acidity in body fluids and reduce blood alkalinity. This is called ketosis. If the blood’s alkalinity is too low, it can cause coma. They allow water and electrolytes to be kept in the body. They help the sodium to be absorbed into the blood from the intestines. It reduces the need for protein by preventing the protein from being used for energy. They regulate bowel movements. Polysaccharides, which digestive enzymes do not affect, help to promote the movement of intestines and to remove stones as feces. If these polysaccharides are few in the diet, bowel movements can be reduced and constipation can occur.
Classification of carbohydrates according to their structure Monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides are divided into 4. Monosaccharides: Basic carbohydrates that can not be hydrolyzed to simpler carbohydrates. They are also known as simple sugars. They are classified as tetozes, tetrozoles, pentoses and hexoses. Monosaccharides are crystallized colorless compounds, most of which are known as simple sugars since they are sweet. When monosaccharides are named, C is the basis. The most abundant monosaccharides in nature are hexoses of 6 C. Hexoses are called glucose, galactose and fructose. At the end of the aldose sugar – when the ooze is brought, the ketose sugar is brought to the end of the name – rose sugar.
Glucose, galactose, fructose monosaccharides are the most important nutrients. Glucose: Glucose has an aldehyde group. It is also called dextrose and grape sugar. In the human organism, Glucose is freely available and is called blood sugar. It is the most important energy source of the organism and the calorie is 65-100 mg / dl. Hydrolysis of complex CHOs results in glucose formation. They are the most abundant monosaccharides in the composition of complex carbohydrates. They are the most abundant monosaccharides in the composition of complex carbohydrates. The most common foods are; grapes and grapes, and drinks, calves. It is also found in pure form and in sugar beverages.